Indonesia Inquiry

Political Participation (Annotated Bibliography)

November 24, 2014 Annotated Bibliographies Research Resources 0

Political Participation (Annotated Bibliography)

Compiled by: Regina Salinas

Directed Individual Study, Fall 2014

Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi

EMPHASIS ON THE YEAR 2014:

Indonesian Elections

Kapoor, Kanupriya. Reuters. 2014. “Indonesian President Yudhoyono Backs Direct Election of District Leaders.” September 15. http://in.reuters.com/article/2014/09/15/indonesia-politics-idINKBN0HA14T20140915 (accessed September 14, 2014).

Indonesia’s outgoing president has spoken out in favor of retaining direct elections for governors and mayors, saying democratic reforms had to be protected. Indonesia’s parliament has proposed doing away with direct elections for provincial, district and city leaders, saying legislative assemblies in those jurisdictions should fill those posts. Critics say that doing away with such elections would damage the development of democracy and entrench the authority of old elites and their patronage politics.

Laia, Kennial. Jakarta Globe. 2014. “Constitutional Court Set to Rule on Election Dispute.” August 21. http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/news/constitutional-court-set-rule-election-dispute/ (accessed September 14, 2014).

The country’s highest court is widely expected to reject Prabowo Subianto’s bid for a revote. Prabowo’s likely dissatisfaction with the Constitutional Court raised concerns over the possibility of rioting and violence — with party officials in the camp, including Prabowo himself, having continued to deliver fiery speeches seemingly aimed at undermining Joko’s assumption of the presidency in October.

Manik, H. Antara News. 2014. “Election Participation Down: Commisioner.” July 23. http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/93103/indonesian-kpu-targets-75-pct-participation-in-2014-elections (accessed September 14, 2014).

Public participation in the Indonesian presidential election this year has been recorded lower than in 2009. The participation has been about 70 percent. At the national level, the trend is down, but at the global level, average. The calculations/percentages are based on the total number of legitimate and non-legitimate votes, and a list of fixed voters.

Quiano, Kathy. CNN. 2014. “Winner of Indonesia Presidential Race Breaks the Mold.” July 22. http://www.cnn.com/2014/07/21/world/asia/indonesia-election-result/ (accessed September 14, 2014).

Jakarta governor and former furniture salesman Joko “Jokowi” Widodo won Indonesia’s presidential election, officials said Tuesday, setting him up to be the first person who didn’t boast a military or elite background to take the office.

Rahadiana, Rieka and Neil Chatterjee. Bloomberg News. 2014. “Indonesia’s Decade of Direct Local Elections Threatened.” September 17. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-09-16/indonesia-s-decade-of-direct-local-elections-threatened.html (accessed September 14, 2014).

Indonesia’s incoming president began his political ascent as a mayor in a system of local elections. The parties of the candidate he beat in July will try to change the law next week to prevent that happening again.

Robert Endi Jaweng. The Conversation. 2014. ” Indonesian Reform Threatened by Return to Indirect Regional Elections.” September 15. http://theconversation.com/indonesian-reform-threatened-by-return-to-indirect-regional-elections-31641 (accessed September 14, 2014).

Indonesians might lose their rights to directly elect local leaders as opponents of president-elect Joko Widodo are pushing to eliminate direct regional elections.

Sihaloho, Markus Junianto. Jakarta Globe. 2014. “PKS: End to Direct Local Elections Is in People’s Best Interest.” September 10. http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/news/pks-end-direct-local-elections-peoples-best-interest/ (accessed September 14, 2014).

Despite widespread resistance to the regional elections bill, the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS) says an end to direct elections of governors, district heads and mayors would be in the people’s best interest.

Indonesian Political Parties

Abdussalam, Andi. 2014. Antara News. “Indonesian Political Parties Kick Off Nationwide Campaigns.” May 16. http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/93224/indonesian-political-parties-kick-off-nationwide-campaigns (accessed September 28, 2014).

A total of 12 Indonesian political parties at the national level kicked off a 21-day nationwide campaigns on Sunday to win the votes of 158.8 million voters in the April 9, 2014 legislative elections. On Saturday, leaders of the 12 political parties fielding candidates in the 2014 legislative elections declared their commitment to maintaining the security and integrity of the campaigns, to be carried out March 16 to April 5, 2014.

Bachelard, Michael. 2014. Sydney Morning Herald. “SBY Vows to Challenge New Threat to Local Democracy in Indonesia.” September 26. http://www.smh.com.au/world/sby-vows-to-challenge-new-threat-to-local-democracy-in-indonesia-20140926-10mbk0.html (accessed September 28, 2014).

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has announced he will challenge a new law that restricts local democracy in Indonesia, even though his own party was largely responsible for its passage. Supporters say the passage of this law is good for democracy and political parties because, at the moment, “good people are not willing to join political parties because they are turned off by the bad image” of electoral politics.

Cochrane, Joe. 2014. The New York Times. “Political Upstarts Work to Propel Change in an Indonesia Tired of Corruption.” June 21. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/22/world/asia/political-upstarts-work-to-propel-change-in-an-indonesia-tired-of-corruption.html?_r=0 (accessed September 28, 2014).

Analysts say the early successes of this new political group, especially in attracting accolades in the national press, might eventually loosen the grip on power by the Suharto-era politicians-a group that includes the outgoing president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, a retired Army general; former President Megawati Sukarnoputri, the daughter of founding President Sukarno; and Aburizal Bakrie, who leads the Golkar Party, Mr. Suharto’s political vehicle during his 32-year rule.

Kapoor, Kanupriya and Randy Fabi. 2014. Reuters. “In Indonesia, Moderate Islamic Party Returns to Political Centerstage.” May 11. http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/05/11/us-indonesia-election-idUSBREA4A02Q20140511 (accessed September 28, 2014).

Indonesian presidential frontrunner Joko “Jokowi” Widodo has joined hands with the country’s most popular Islamic party, cementing the surprise resurgence of Muslim parties in this year’s election and possibly renewing their voice in the new government. The National Awakening Party (PKB) on Saturday became the latest party to back Jokowi’s Indonesian Democratic-Party of Struggle (PDI-P) and his bid for president on July 9.

Margiono, Muhammad Ariono. 2014. Jakarta Post. “Putting the Public Back Into Political Party ‘Business Models’.” August 21. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2014/08/21/putting-public-back-political-party-business-models.html (accessed September 28, 2014).

This phenomenon may be an opportunity to jump-start political party reform in Indonesia. With high public interest in donating to a political cause, there is an opportunity for political parties to invite their members and the public to directly take part in the process and collectively finance Indonesia’s democracy.

Otto, Ben and Sara Schonhardt. 2014.” The Wall Street Journal. Islamic Political Parties Make A Comeback in Indonesian Election.” April 10. http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303873604579493311138076926 (accessed September 14, 2014).

Islamic parties reversed years of decline in Indonesia’s legislative elections, preliminary results suggest, putting themselves in a better position to make or break coalitions in the world’s most populous Muslim country.

Parlina, Ina. 2013. Jakarta Post. “Ahok Has ‘No Plans’ to Join Political Party.” September 23. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2014/09/23/ahok-has-no-plans-join-political-party.html (accessed September 28, 2014).

Following his highly publicized exit from the Gerindra Party, Deputy Jakarta Governor Basuki “Ahok” Tjahaja Purnama claims to have no plans to engage in any political party any time soon. Despite his declaration, Ahok did not comment on the possibility of his rejoining Golkar in the future if the proposed abolishment of direct elections for regional leaders did not pass.

Parlina, Ina. 2013. Jakarta Post. “Political Parties Seize Control.” September 27. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2014/09/27/political-parties-seize-control.html (accessed September 28, 2014).

Political parties appeared to have secured a lock on regional administrations following the passage of the regional elections (Pilkada) law, which will vest Regional Legislative Councils (DPRDs) with the power to appoint local leaders.

Schonhardt,Sara. 2014. The Wall Street Journal. “Indonesia’s Political Parties Hurrying to Build Coalitions.”http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303873604579493311138076926 – # May 12. (accessed September 14, 2014).

Indonesia’s political parties are in a last dash to form alliances before the deadline to register a candidate in July’s presidential race arrives. The country’s elections commission – energized by sweet rice snacks and ginger tea – confirmed final results of last month’s legislative polls just 30 minutes before its midnight deadline on May 9. But while the results were largely as expected – at least according to initial “quick counts” on election night – some uncertainty remains over which parties will come together to back a candidate for president.

Protests in Indonesia

Belford, Aubrey. 2014. New York Times. “Thousands Rally to Press for Independence From Indonesia” http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/18/business/global/indonesia-budget-fuel-prices.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Ar%2C%7B%222%22%3A%22RI%3A15%22%7D&_r=0 August 2. (accessed October 19, 2014).

Thousands of people rallied for independence from Indonesia in the country’s Papua region on Tuesday, after days of political violence that killed at least 21 people.

Bender, Jeremy. 2014. Business Insider. “Indonesian Islamists Protest Rise of Christian to Jakarta Governor” http://www.businessinsider.com/protests-rock-indonesia-2014-8 August 22. (accessed October 19, 2014).

Thousands of protesters in Indonesia’s capital Jakarta clashed with upwards of 50,000 police and military personnel as the nation’s highest court supported the outcome of last month’s presidential election. The losing presidential candidate, Prabowo Subianto, alleged that the election was plagued with fraud that he had been cheated out of victory. Indonesia’s Constitutional Court ruled against Subianto’s claim, confirming Joko Widodo as Indonesia’s president-elect.

Cochrane, Joe. 2014. New York Times. “Crowds Protest as Indonesian Lawmakers Raise Fuel Prices” http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/18/business/global/indonesia-budget-fuel-prices.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Ar%2C%7B%222%22%3A%22RI%3A15%22%7D&_r=0 June 17. (accessed October 19, 2014).

The Indonesian House of Representatives late Monday passed a revised state budget that included a highly contentious increase in the price of subsidized gasoline, despite moves by opposition parties to block the measure and street protests around the country.

Lala, Andy. 2014. Voice of America. “Indonesian Islamists Protest Rise of Christian to Jakarta Governor” http://www.voanews.com/content/indonesian-islamists-protest-rise-of-christian-to-jakarta-governor/2461357.html September 24. (accessed October 19, 2014).

A hardline Indonesian Islamic group has staged a demonstration against the expected elevation of a Chinese Christian to the post of Jakarta governor next month.

Mydans, Seth. 2014. New York Times. “Crowds a Nation Challenged: Jakarta; U.S. Lets Employees Leave as Indonesia Protests Mount” http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/18/business/global/indonesia-budget-fuel-prices.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Ar%2C%7B%222%22%3A%22RI%3A15%22%7D&_r=0 September 28. (accessed October 19, 2014).

With hundreds of protesters burning American flags outside its gates and with fringe groups threatening to kill Americans, the United States Embassy told most of its staff today that they could leave the country if they chose. While the government has expressed guarded support for the United States in its new battle against terrorism, militant Islamic groups have been staging demonstrations in several cities and vowing to take revenge if the United States attacks any Muslim nation.

Mydans, Seth. 2014. New York Times. “Indonesia Cracks Down as Protests Hit Capital” http://www.nytimes.com/1998/02/12/world/indonesia-cracks-down-as-protests-hit-capital.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Ar%2C%7B%222%22%3A%22RI%3A15%22%7D February 11. (accessed October 19, 2014).

Nearly 100 people were detained after a peaceful protest over the rising prices and food shortages that are forcing shoppers to spend hours in search of basic items like cooking oil and baby formula. Indonesia’s economy has continued to worsen despite a $40 billion rescue package organized by the International Monetary Fund.

Niniek Karmini. 2014. Huffington Post. “Miss World Canceled? Indonesian Clerics Protest Beauty Pageant on Religious Ground” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/26/miss-world-banned-indonesia_n_3816919.html August 26. (accessed October 19, 2014).

One of Indonesia’s most influential Islamic groups is urging the government to cancel the Miss World pageant scheduled for next month, saying the exposure of skin by women in a competition violates Muslim teachings.

Public Opinion in Indonesia

Njoto-Feillard, Gwenael. 2014. Bangkok Post. “Will IS infect Indonesia’s tolerant Islam?” October 2. http://www.bangkokpost.com/opinion/opinion/435444/will-is-infect-indonesia-tolerant-islam (accessed September 14, 2014).

Like other parts of the Muslim world, Jakarta has been confronted by the growth of the Islamic State (IS). For months, the organisation has been trying to recruit new members in Indonesia. Several factors have changed since the 2000s. The chaos currently affecting parts of the Middle East — covered daily on Indonesian TV — is acting as a strong deterrent for public opinion.

Women and LGBTQ in Indonesia

Gade, Fakhrurradzie and Niniek Karmini. 2014. Huffington Post. “Indonesia’s Aceh Province Considers Caning As Gay Sex Punishment” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/24/indonesia-gay-sex-caning-_n_5872610.html?utm_hp_ref=indonesia September 24. (accessed October 19, 2014).

People caught having homosexual sex could be publicly caned in Indonesia’s conservative Aceh province if an Islam-inspired draft law is approved this week. Lawmaker Moharriadi Syafari said a majority of provincial legislators supported criminalizing gay sex. They are debating the law with a view to passing it and several others regulating personal behavior before Friday, the last day of the current assembly. Gay rights activist King Oey said Wednesday he will urge the central government to use its influence to get the bill scrapped or appeal to the country’s Constitutional Court.

Norimitsu Onishi. 2009. New York Times. “For These Transvestites, Still More Role Changes ” http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/29/world/asia/29briefs-Shariah.html October 28. (accessed October 19, 2014).

Muslim women in a district in Aceh Province will be forbidden to wear tight pants or jeans under a regulation that will go into effect in January. Officials in West Aceh district said the Shariah police, who are charged with enforcing Islamic law, will shred any offensive clothing and require women in tight pants to change into government-issued skirts. The district has already ordered 7,000 skirts of various sizes. Last month, Aceh Province’s Parliament passed an Islamic penal code that could subject adulterers to death by stoning.

Perlez, Jane. 2003. New York Times. “For These Transvestites, Still More Role Changes ” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/24/indonesia-gay-sex-caning-_n_5872610.html?utm_hp_ref=indonesia July 24. (accessed October 19, 2014).

The news article shed light on the life of a typical transvestite in Indonesian society. It describes the growth of transvestites in the public. Also, the article describes the role of transvestites in relation to the government.

Perlez, Jane. 2006. New York Times. “Spread of Islamic Law in Indonesia Takes Toll on Women” http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/27/world/asia/27indo.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 June 27. (accessed October 19, 2014).

Nearly 30 local governments have introduced Shariah laws or Shariah-inspired legislation, from Aceh in the far north where Shariah laws have lain quiescent on the books for several years but are now being carried out by special Shariah courts, to southern Sulawesi and to small islands farther west. The news article addresses how tese laws have negatively impacted Indonesian women.

Schonhardt, Sara. 2013. New York Times. ” Indonesian Women Told How to Ride Motorbikes” http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/15/world/asia/indonesian-city-plans-to-ban-women-from-straddling-motorbikes.html January 14. (accessed October 19, 2014).

A plan by officials in an Indonesian city to ban women from straddling motorbikes has prompted an outcry from critics, who say local leaders are infringing on women’s safety and freedom in the name of religion.